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Glossary of battery (Part Three)
Feb 15, 2017

Electrolyte — A nonmetallic (liquid or solid) conductor that carries current by the movement of ions (instead of electrons) with the liberation of matter at the electrodes of an electrochemical cell.

End of Life  — When a battery's capacity reaches 80% of it's rating the battery is considered to have reached end of life.  This is the industry standard definition, it does not mean the battery cannot be used nor does it mean it should be disposed.

Equalization Charge — The process of mixing the electrolyte in batteries by periodically overcharging the batteries for a short time. This is a continuation of normal battery charging, at a voltage level slightly higher than the normal end-of-charge voltage, in order to provide cell equalization within a battery.  This is a process of balancing the state of charge in all the cells that form a battery bank to remove sulphates from battery plates and restore capacity.

Float Charge / Float Voltage — The lowest voltage that will maintain the battery at full charge. The voltage required to counteract the self-discharge of the battery at a certain temperature.

Freezing Point of all Lead Acid batteries — The temperature at which the electrolyte will freeze based on the battery's state of Chage (SoG)

Approx. (SoC)
  State-of-Charge

Approx.  Electrolyte Freeze Point

100%

(-67°C)

75%

(-37°C)

50%

(-23°C)

25%

(-15°C)

0%  (DISCHARGED)

(-6.7°C)

Gassing -  is when batteries start to gas when you attempt to charge them faster than they can absorb the energy. The excess energy is turned into heat, which then causes the electrolyte to boil and evaporate.

Gassing Current — The portion of charge current that goes into electrolytic production of hydrogen and oxygen from the electrolytic liquid. This current increases both voltage and temperature.

Gel-Type Battery — Lead-acid battery in which the electrolyte is composed of a silica gel matrix.

Hydrometer  — A direct-reading instrument for indicating the density, specific gravity, or some similar characteristic of liquids.  Specific gravity hydrometers to indicate specific gravity of a liquid, with reference to water, at a particular temperature. The Hydrometer used to measure the specific gravity of battery electrolyte is called a bulb hydrometer and   consists of a small commercial hydrometer contained in a larger glass tube into which the solution to be tested is drawn by the action of a rubber bulb. It is used to measure the specific gravity of the sulfuric acid solution in lead acid batteries.

Lead-acid battery - is a electrical storage device that uses a reversible chemical reaction to store energy. It uses a combination of lead plates or grids and an electrolyte consisting of a diluted sulphuric acid to convert electrical energy into potential chemical energy and back again.

Liquid Electrolyte Battery — A battery containing a liquid solution of acid and water. Distilled water may be added to these batteries to replenish the electrolyte as necessary. Also called a flooded battery because the plates are covered with the electrolyte.

Load Voltage - As a battery is charged the plates polarize and develop a resistance to the charge (surface charge). This resistance adds to thebattery voltage.  The voltage reading will not reflect the true state of charge.

Maintenance-Free Battery — A sealed battery to which water cannot be added to maintain electrolyte level.

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